Disclaimer: The Treaty Relations Commission of Manitoba does not maintain or authorize the material on external links. These links are only offered for additional information on Treaties and related issues.
Federal and Provincial Organizations Responsible for Aboriginal Peoples
First Nation Governmental Organizations
Assembly of First Nations
Congress of Aboriginal Peoples
Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami
Native Woman’s Association of Canada
Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs
Southern Chiefs Organization (SCO)
Manitoba Keewatinowi Okimakanak Inc. (MKO)
First Nation Tribal Councils in Manitoba
Dakota Ojibway Tribal Council
Interlake Reserves Tribal Council
Island Lake Tribal Council – no website
Keewatin Tribal Council
Southeast Resource Development Council
Swampy Cree Tribal Council
West Region Tribal Council
Directory of Aboriginal Organizations in Manitoba
Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada
Aboriginal Healing Foundation
Thesis Canada Portal
Manitoba Heritage Network: Manitoba Cultural History Overview
Aboriginal Multi-Media Society
Our Roots: Canada’s History On-line
Forest Home: The Resource Centre for Aboriginal Forestry Issues in Canada
The Forks Winnipeg
University and Colleges
University of Manitoba
University of Winnipeg
Canadian Mennonite University
Université de Saint-Boniface
Red River College
University College of the North
Booth University College
Assiniboine Community College
Maps of treaties through time
“This series of maps illustrates the historical evolution of Canada through treaty-making between 1867 and 1999, focusing on the Numbered Treaties. The Numbered Treaties were negotiated between the Dominion of Canada and the First People who inhabited newly-acquired western territories. The maps are available in pdf”.
Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada: Treaty Information
“The Historic Treaty Information site has been created by the Treaty Policy Directorate of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (TPD, AANDC) to make more readily accessible a number of resources relating to historic treaties. The site contains historical research reports, images, maps, bibliographies and other resources pertaining to the more than 70 historic treaties negotiated between 1701 and 1923”.
Indian and Northern Affairs Annual Reports, 1864-1990 (with Library and Archives Canada)
“The Indian Affairs Annual Reports collection was first issued on CD-ROM in 1997. Through a cooperative effort between the former National Library of Canada and the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, the full text of these annual reports is now available on the Web. We hope that users will find the reports a rich resource for historical research”.
International Indian Treaty Council
The International Indian Treaty Council (IITC) is an organization of Indigenous Peoples from North, Central, South America, the Caribbean and the Pacific working for the Sovereignty and Self Determination of Indigenous Peoples and the recognition and protection of Indigenous Rights, Treaties, Traditional Cultures and Sacred Lands.
The Manitoba First Nations Education Resource Centre (MFNERC)
“…established in 1999, was given a mandate by the Chiefs of Manitoba to provide second and third level education services to fifty-five First Nations schools in Manitoba”.
Natural Resources Canada
“Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) works to ensure the responsible development of Canada’s natural resources, including energy, forests, minerals and metals. We also use our expertise in earth sciences to build and maintain an up-to-date knowledge base of our landmass and resources”.
The Atlas of Canada
Historical Indian Treaties goes into some detail on the pre-Confederation and Post-Confederation treaties. The map is vague; however there is some simple/overview info on the history of treaties.
Natural Resources Canada-Querying Geographic Names
(Has Aboriginal Place Names)
Canadian Model Forest Network
“The Canadian Model Forest Network continues to bring together organizations with diverse views on how forests should be managed. With core funding and leadership from Natural Resources Canada’s Canadian Forest Service, this diversity of opinion and spirit of collaboration has advanced the knowledge and practice of sustainable forest management”.
Library and Archives Canada
“Library and Archives Canada collects and preserves Canada’s documentary heritage, and makes it accessible to all Canadians. This heritage includes publications, archival records, sound and audio-visual materials, photographs, artworks, and electronic documents such as websites”.
Pathfinders and Passageways
Overview of the history of colonization of Canada by Europeans organized by the century, also, has a look at map making throughout the centuries. It recognizes some of the Aboriginal people’s important roles in the history of exploration.
“Archives Canada is an official archival portal maintained by the Canadian Council of Archives (CCA), and is a joint initiative of CCA, the Provincial – Territorial Archival Networks, and Library and Archives Canada”.
Canadian Archival Information Network
“On October 20, 2001, the Canadian Council of Archives launched the Canadian Archival Information Network, an electronic initiative designed to provide online access to holdings in over 800 archival institutions across the country. Known initially as CAIN, the network has now become Archives Canada (ARCHIVESCANADA.ca)”.
“Environment Canada’s mandate is to preserve and enhance the quality of the natural environment; conserve Canada’s renewable resources; conserve and protect Canada’s water resources; forecast weather and environmental change; enforce rules relating to boundary waters; and coordinate environmental policies and programs for the federal government”.
Mandate: “On behalf of the people of Canada, we protect and present nationally significant examples of Canada’s natural and cultural heritage and foster public understanding, appreciation and enjoyment in ways that ensure their ecological and commemorative integrity for present and future generations”.
An Approach to Aboriginal Cultural Landscapes
“A fascinating Parks Canada research report about incorporating traditional Aboriginal values and spiritual views of the natural world into the process of developing national historic site designations” (The Canadian Encyclopedia-on-line)
Riding Mountain National Park
Historic and Cultural Heritage-has info on First Nation occupation of this area
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC)
“COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada) is a committee of experts that assesses and designates which wild species are in some danger of disappearing from Canada”.
“In 2000, COSEWIC added a new subcommittee to assist it in the acquisition and incorporation of Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge into the COSEWIC status assessment process. The Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK) Subcommittee is in its formative stages, and will ultimately ensure ATK is included in the status assessment process.” (From brief history about COSEWIC) Defines Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK)
Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency
“Our role is to provide Canadians with high-quality environmental assessments that contribute to informed decision making, in support of sustainable development. Considering Aboriginal traditional knowledge in environmental assessments conducted under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act — Interim Principles.
There is growing recognition–both in Canada and abroad–that Aboriginal peoples have a unique knowledge about the local environment, how it functions, and its characteristic ecological relationships. This Aboriginal traditional knowledge (ATK) is increasingly being recognized as an important part of project planning, resource management, and environmental assessment (EA)”.
The International Development Research Centre
“The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is a Crown corporation created by the Parliament of Canada in 1970 to help developing countries use science and technology to find practical, long-term solutions to the social, economic, and environmental problems they face. Our support is directed toward creating a local research community whose work will build healthier, more equitable and more prosperous societies”.
Historic Resource Branch (Government of Manitoba)
“Manitobans have inherited a rich legacy from the past. The reminders range from our natural landscapes, heritage sites, and landmark buildings to the historic objects and documents in our museums and archives, as well as the knowledge, ideas, and traditions of our ancestors”.
Aboriginal Relations Branch
Mandate: “Set the overall direction for the Department for programs, policies, and legislation that impact or may impact Treaty and Aboriginal rights. Be accountable for the development and implementation of a departmental framework to address Aboriginal issues as they relates to the Department; and Educate, facilitate dialogue, and bridge opposing views and philosophies”.
Manitoba Conservation library
“Our information collection covers a wide range of topics, including energy, environmental quality, environmental management and protection, pollution prevention, fisheries, forestry, parks, wildlife, hydrology, sustainable development, climatology, and meteorology”. They have an on-line database of documents and journals.
The Petroforms of Manitoba (Whiteshell Provincial Park)
Information on petroforms of Manitoba, link to Bannock Point, Whiteshell Provincial Park.
Manitoba Archival Information Network
“The Manitoba Archival Information Network (MAIN) is a database of descriptions of archival material held in Manitoba archives. It is a work in progress, with new descriptions being added regularly. For further information about the material described in this database, contact the relevant archives”.
The Archives of Manitoba
“Under the authority of The Archives and Recordkeeping Act, the Archives of Manitoba has the exclusive mandate to preserve the archival records of the government and its agencies, the courts and the legislature. The legislation provides for the acquisition of archival records of organizations and individuals in the Manitoba private sector and local public bodies. We are proud to be the repository of the world-renowned Hudson’s Bay Company Archives”.
Manitoba Historical Society
“Founded in June 1879 by an Act of the Manitoba Legislature, the Manitoba Historical Society (MHS) is the oldest organization in western Canada devoted to the promotion of public interest in, and preservation of, the region’s historical resources”.
Manitoba Archaeological Society
“The Manitoba Archaeological Society (MAS) was established in 1961 by a group of individuals concerned with the preservation of Manitoba’s archaeological resources”
Manitoba Heritage Network: Manitoba Cultural History Overview
1998 Manitoba Archaeological Society, main site.
The Turtle and the Serpent: (Turtle Mountain exhibit/book from Moncur Gallery)
“The contents of this website are based on a presentation by James A. M. Ritchie to the ICOMOS-Canada Committee. Principal interpretive assistance contributed by Elder William Dumas, Cree. Astronomical interpretation based on work of Dr. John Eddy. Research conducted at the Boissevain & Morton Regional Library and Community Archives on behalf of the Moncur Gallery. For information please contact the Moncur Gallery directly”.
The Moncur Gallery (Peoples of the Plains)
“The Moncur Gallery has published a background report on the physical evidence of Aboriginal history in the Turtle Mountain region entitled Turtle Mountain Tales: The Council Stones”.
Centre for Rupert’s Land Studies
“The Centre for Rupert’s Land Studies at The University of Winnipeg facilitates scholarly research and publishing concerning the human history of the Hudson’s Bay Company territory, known from 1670 to 1870 as Rupert’s Land. The Centre for Rupert’s Land Studies also functions as a clearinghouse to assist researchers with similar interests to be in touch with each other, to communicate about their research projects and findings, and to assist researchers from out of town by putting them in touch with qualified local assistants or by providing a congenial meeting spot when visiting Winnipeg”.
Centre for Indigenous Environmental Research (CIER)
A national, First Nation-directed environmental non-profit organization with charitable status. CIER was established in 1994 by a group of First Nation Chiefs from across Canada. Through programs, they take action on climate change, building sustainable communities, protecting lands and waters, and conserving biodiversity (adapted from website). They have an e-library and publications/links to other sources of information concerning Indigenous Knowledge and the environment.
The Manitoba Indian Cultural Education Centre-The People’s Library
“The Centre operates a unique Resource Library and Information Centre relating to the First Nation Peoples of Manitoba as well as other Indigenous Peoples of North America. Our resource centre has a substantial collection of books, publications, films, educational kits, audio-visual tapes, music, art and handicrafts inherent to the Aboriginal Peoples of North America. The Resource Library and Information Centre are instrumental in promoting library services to Bands that expressed an interest in establishing a library. We also provide specialized assistance to those who already have a library”.
Early Canadiana On-line
“Early Canadiana Online (ECO) is a digital library providing access to 2,762,671 pages of Canada’s printed heritage. It features works published from the time of the first European settlers up to the early 20th Century. ECO is produced by Canadiana.org, a nonprofit organization for preserving and providing access to early Canadian publications, first on microfiche and now online”.
Canada in the making
“This site is about the history of Canada through the words of the men and women who shaped the nation. Built around the Government Documents collection of the Early Canadiana Online collection, it integrates narrative text with links to primary source texts”.
Bloorstreet.com-Aboriginal Links (Canada and USA)
Aboriginal web portal, last updated in 1998, thus many links do not work, but has many useful topics to search on the internet.
First Nations Environmental Network
Vision: “The First Nations Environmental Network is a circle of First Nations people committed to protecting, defending, and restoring the balance of all life by honouring traditional Indigenous values and the path of our ancestors. We encourage the work of protecting, defending and healing Mother Earth. We desire and need to link grassroots Indigenous people nationally and internationally to support each other on environmental struggles and concerns. We are obligated to leave footprints for our children to follow by striving to live our life with traditional values”.
Aboriginal Multi-Media Society
“The Aboriginal Multi-Media Society is an Aboriginal communications society dedicated to serving the needs of Aboriginal people throughout Canada. Incorporated in 1983 under the Alberta Societies Actâ€¦the Society has steadfastly maintained its commitment to the quality of its products and its people”.
First Nations Information Project
“This project is intended to provide a mechanism to share knowledge, interests, and effective practices connecting the Aboriginal community from around this expanse country and the world. Our vision is to create an on-line atmosphere connecting the Aboriginal community with each other and sharing the aboriginal experience with those who desire this experience”.
University of Toronto Libraries section on J.B Tyrrell’s expeditions in 1893 and 1894 for the Geological Survey of Canada in the Barren lands region
“This site documents two exploratory surveys of the Barren Lands region west of Hudson Bay, in northern Manitoba and Saskatchewan and the area now known as Nunavut. Drawing on materials from the J.B. Tyrrell, James Tyrrell and related collections at the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, University of Toronto, it includes over 5,000 images from original field notebooks, correspondence, photographs, maps and published reports”.
Our Roots: Canada’s History On-line
“Our Roots is a library, archive, museum and school all in one. Check the collection to find Canadian local histories in French and English. Check Educational Resources for learning packages for students and teachers”. People and Land in Northern Manitoba: 1990 Conference at the University of Manitoba
Forest Home: The Resource Centre for Aboriginal Forestry Issues in Canada
“The National Aboriginal Forestry Association (NAFA) was established to promote sustainable forestry as a necessary condition for Aboriginal economic development, the repair of environmental degradation, and the restoration of cultural and community spiritual health for Aboriginal people across the country. NAFA is the host and administrator of the Forest Home website”.
International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) and Skownan First Nation
Appreciative Inquiry and Community Development- Integrating Aboriginal Values into Land Use and Resource Management
Between January 2000 and June 2001, IISD partnered with Skownan First Nation, formerly called Waterhen First Nation, to explore how Aboriginal people value the lands around them and how this information can be incorporated into Manitoba’s land-use and resource management activities”. Also, see Stock, Karen (PhD dissertation) The Skownan First Nation model for sustainable development and Aboriginal stewardship (2006).
The Forks website
“The Forks, so named because of its position where the Assiniboine River flows into the Red, yields a rich history of early Aboriginal settlement, the fur trade, the advent of the railway, waves of immigration and the Industrial Age”.
Also, see Huck, Barbara (ed.). Crossroads of the Continent: A History of the Forks of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers. Winnipeg, MB: Heartland Associates Inc., 2003.
D’Arcy Rheault – Anishinaabe Mino-Bimaadiziwin (The Way of a Good Life): An Examination of Anishinaabe Philosophy Concerning Knowledge, Identity and Ethics
E-book-copyright 1998-2005 by D’Arcy Rheault.
“Ecotrust Canada builds the capacity of communities, institutions and businesses to participate in the conservation economy; raises and brokers capital to accelerate the transition to a conservation economy; and connects conservation entrepreneurs to each other, and to the marketplace. We champion the conservation economy”.
“In 1998, our commitment to strengthen collaborative relationships manifested itself in the establishment of the Aboriginal Mapping Network (AMN) between Ecotrust Canada and the Gitxsan, Ahousaht, Kwakiutl and Haisla First Nations. From discussions with these groups, it was decided that Ecotrust Canada would be the managing body of the AMN”.
Aboriginal Mapping Network
“The Aboriginal Mapping Network (AMN) is a cooperative website that supports aboriginal and indigenous peoples facing similar issues such as land claims, treaty negotiations and resource development. Common tools, such as traditional use studies, GIS mapping and other information systems are used in a collaborative manner, benefiting users of the AMN”.
Ecology and Society-A Journal of integrative science for resilience and sustainability (formerly Conservation Ecology)
“Ecology and Society is an electronic, peer-reviewed, multi-disciplinary journal devoted to the rapid dissemination of current research”. This journal has useful articles with bibliographies concerning First Nations issues, traditional ecological knowledge and natural resource management. Davidson-Hunt, I. and F. Berkes. 2003.
IPortal (Indigenous Studies Portal) from the University of Saskatchewan
“The Indigenous Studies Portal (IPortal) connects faculty, students, researchers and members of the community with electronic resources: books, articles, theses, documents, photographs, archival resources, maps, etc. The vision of the Indigenous Studies Portal is to provide one place to look to find resources for Indigenous studies”. “This Indigenous Studies Portal is being developed by the University of Saskatchewan Library. The IPortal also links to Indigenous programs and events at the University of Saskatchewan. It offers specialized tools for teaching and scholarship”.
Academic Info: Canadian History-Digital Library
Directory of Online Canadian History Publications, Journals, Databases, & Exhibits.
Four Directions Teachings
“Four Directions Teachings celebrates Indigenous oral traditions by honoring the process of listening with intent as each elder or traditional teacher shares a teaching from their perspective on the richness and value of cultural traditions from their nation”. This interactive website has Cree and Ojibwa teachings.
Native American Tribes of Manitoba
This website also connects to information about First Nation languages, culture and selected links on Native American Indian Tribes.
Canadian First Nations Treaty Map Index
This website has information on treaties in Canada and other related material. There are many links to other websites with various information concerning treaties, also there is a maps menu and main menu on the bottom of the page that lead to other website concerning First Nations issues.
First People: American Indians: First People of America and Canada-Turtle Island
“First People is a child friendly site about American and Canadian Indians. 1400+ legends, 400+ agreements and treaties, 10,000+ pictures, free clipart, Pueblo pottery, American Indian jewelry, books and more”.
Project for the protection and repatriation of First Nation Cultural Heritage in Canada
“This research program, lead by Professor Bell (University of Alberta) and Professor Paterson (U.B.C. Law) [examined the] Canadian legislation affecting ownership, protection and control of First Nation cultural heritage and develop strategies for reform”.
Fur Trade Stories- Canada National History Society
“A unique presentation of primary and secondary resources found in the collections of Canada’s National History Society, HBCA – Archives of Manitoba, The Manitoba Museum, Parks Canada and several First Nations communities”.
Western Canada Pictorial Index
“Welcome to the Western Canada Pictorial Index at the University of Winnipeg. This index contains more than 60,000 images of Canada’s west from the Riel Rebellion to the late 20th century. A great variety of themes are covered in the Index, but a few areas receive outstanding coverage. Agriculture and farm production is important and well-represented, with nearly 10,000 items.”
Virtual Saskatchewan On-line Magazine
Article on Churchill River Rock Painting, by: Dave Yanko
Book: Aboriginal Rock Painting on the Churchill River, by Tim Jones
The Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development: Findings and Considerations (Library of Parliament-Parliamentary Information and Research Service)
Prepared by: Tonina Simeone – Political and Social Affairs Division, 15 November 2007.
and here: hpaied.org
National Centre for First Nations Governance
“The Centre has a two-pronged mandate. First, it is designed to support First Nations as they seek to implement their inherent rights of self-government and secondly, it assists First Nations in the further development of their day-to-day government operations”.
Manitoba Association of Friendship Centres
“The Manitoba Association of Friendship Centres (MAC) was established in 1971 as a non-profit body to represent the concerns of the growing number of Friendship Centres in Manitoba. As a Provincial Territorial Association (PTA) MAC now represents 10 Centres at Provincial and National forums”.
Manitobia: Life and Times
“The Manitobia.ca project is a first major initiative of the Manitoba Library Consortium and its partners to gather and render accessible a wealth of historically significant documents and publications free of charge to Canadians, young and old. The Consortium, an incorporated non-profit organization of Manitoba libraries, provides leadership by planning and managing projects and resources so Manitobans can enjoy equitable access to the library and information resources of the province”.
Canadian Encyclopedia on-line (search under Native Peoples)
“The Canadian Encyclopedia comprises the complete text and multimedia of the indispensable reference work originally published in 1985. Since the encyclopedia appeared online in 2001, it has been continuously updated and expanded. James H. Marsh has been editor in chief of The Canadian Encyclopedia since 1980”.
Voyageurs National Park: Special History: The Environment and the Fur Trade Experience in Voyageurs National Park 1730-1870
Report on the history of the environment and fur trade in the Rainy River region (Voyageurs National Park). Has some excellent material on transportation and routes in the fur trade and includes some history of what is now Manitoba.
Province of British Columbia
“Welcome to the Province of British Columbia’s website for B.C. Treaties. The government of British Columbia is currently in negotiations with 47 First Nations groups under the B.C. Treaty Commission process. This process brings together First Nations, British Columbia and Canada to establish certainty over rights to Crown land and resources through the negotiation of treaties. In addition to improving the quality of life for Aboriginal people, treaties will stimulate investment, create jobs and expand economic opportunities throughout the province. Every treaty signed opens new doors to greater prosperity for all British Columbians.”
Aboriginal Peoples: Portal (link to many other websites in different subjects such as Education, Treaties, History and Culture, General Resources, etc.)
Treaty Land Entitlement Committee of Manitoba
“The Manitoba Treaty Land Entitlement Framework Agreement was signed by the Treaty Land Entitlement Committee of Manitoba Inc. (representing 20 First Nations), Canada and Manitoba on May 29, 1997 at the Opaskwayak Cree Nation. This agreement is intended to provide land to the 20 First Nations, fulfilling a long-standing commitment arising from the numbered Treaties signed between Canada and the First Nations between 1871 and 1910.”
Office of the Treaty Commissioner (Saskatchewan)
“The Office of the Treaty Commissioner (OTC), an independent body, will serve as the primary mechanism to coordinate and facilitate a bilateral process between Government of Canada and the Federation of Saskatchewan Nations to achieve a common understanding on Treaties No. 4, 5, 6, 8, and 10 in Saskatchewan.”
eCulture: History, culture, Treaties re: Prince Albert Grand Council region
Documented Historical Research Compiled by: Leo J. Omani, B.Ed; M.Ed.
U of S, Doctoral Ph.D. Student, WalkingCloud Consulting, 2003, Updated March 2009.
University of Manitoba, YouManitoba’s Channel
Series of eight videos on Aboriginal Law.